Article VIII: Off-Street Loading and Parking

Section 8.1                           Applicability

Section 8.2                           Exemptions

Section 8.3                           Requirements by Use

Section 8.4                           Parking Space Locations

Section 8.5                           Potential Adjustments

Section 8.6                           Parking Space and Maneuvering Area Dimensions

Section 8.7                           Accessibility to Parking Areas

Section 8.8                           Design Standards


Section 8.1                           Applicability

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Minimum off-street parking and loading spaces required by this Article shall be provided whenever:

(a)              Any principal structure is erected on a lot.

(b)              Any principal structure is enlarged by the addition of floor area or increased by the number of dwelling units, guest rooms, etc.

(c)               There is any change in use of a principal structure to a use that increases the number of parking spaces required by Table 8.1 by greater than five (5) additional spaces.

Section 8.2.                          Exemptions

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The Zoning Administrator may, on application and after review, exempt the erection of a structure replacing an existing structure, or the extension or enlargement of an existing structure, from providing the off-street parking spaces required by this Article, where it finds that such exception will not be detrimental to the public welfare or contrary to the Town’s adopted comprehensive plan and that:

(a)              Street frontage before extension or enlargement is so limited that accessibility to a parking area or additional parking spaces would have an adverse impact on adjacent properties; or

(b)              The composition of existing structures in the immediate neighborhood and diverse ownership make impossible or impractical the creation of off-street parking areas for existing or contemplated uses; or

(c)               There are a sufficient number of on-street parking spaces adjacent to, and accessible from, the site that will compensate for the additional spaces required as a result of such replacement or enlargement.

Section 8.3                           Requirements by Use

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The computation of minimum off-street parking and loading requirements for each permitted use shall be based upon the standards in the following table, subject to any adjustments or exemptions allowed in this Article and approved by the Zoning Administrator.


Table 8.1

USE CATEGORY

USE TYPE

MINIMUM NUMBER SPACES REQUIRED

I. Residential

 

Single Family Detached

Two (2) per dwelling unit

 

Single-Family Attached

 

Two-family Dwellings

 

Multi-family Dwellings

One (1) per bedroom per unit, but not less than two (2) per unit

 

Home Occupations

One (1) in addition to spaces required for residence.

 

Accessory Dwelling Units

One per bedroom per unit

 

Manufactured Housing Units

Two (2) per dwelling unit

 

Bed and Breakfast, rented accommodations or residential businesses

One (1) per accommodation plus one (1) per three (3) owners or managers.

II. Commercial

 

General Retail [Note: shopping centers required to provide cumulative amount minus any approved reduction for shared parking facilities.]

One (1) per each 250 square feet of gross leasable area (GLA)

 

Pharmacies

 

Financial Institutions

 

Personal Services

 

Professional Services – general

 

Restaurants

One (1) per each 150 square feet of dining area, plus one-half (.5) per employee on a shift.

 

Child care centers, kindergartens, daycare centers

One (1) per eight (8) attendees plus one (1) per two (2) employees

 

Continuing care facilities (i.e. retirement, assisted living and nursing care establishments)

One (1) per three (3) sleeping units plus one (1) for each employee per shift.

 

Medical Services

Six (6) per each 1,000 square feet of gross leasable area (GLA)

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USE CATEGORY

USE TYPE

NUMBER SPACES REQUIRED

 

Medical Facilities [other than offices], e.g. clinics

One (1) per two (2) beds or examination room, plus one (1) per four (4) employees, plus one per medical staff per shift.

 

Funeral Homes

One (1) per each four (4) seats in assembly rooms plus two (2) per employee at maximum employment on a single shift

 

Business Services

One (1) per two (2) employees on a single shift plus one (1) per each 500 square feet of service or office space

 

Vehicle, Equipment or Machinery Sales

One (1) per each 400 square feet of interior sales space, plus two (2) per sales person or other employee.

 

Automobile Service Stations

Two (2) per each pump and service bay, plus one (1) per two (2) employees per shift; but no less than five (5) per establishment

III. Light Industrial

 

Wholesale Trade and Storage Facilities

One (1) per two (2) employees on a shift, plus one (1) per company vehicle stored on the premises

 

Packaging Plants

 

Marine craft and other repair services

 

Contracting offices

IV. Transportation, Communication and Utilities

 

Non-private docks, Marinas

One-half (1/2) per (1) per slip, plus one (1) per three (3) dry storage racks

 

Utility Substation or distribution or transmission facility

Two (2) per facility, plus one (1) per one and one-half (1.5) employees on a shift if applicable.

V. General Government Services

 

Offices

One (1) per each 500 square feet of gross floor area (GLA);

 

Maintenance and repair shops

 

Public safety facilities [police, fire, rescue]

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USE CATEGORY

USE TYPE

NUMBER SPACES REQUIRED

VI. Cultural, Religious, Entertainment, and Recreational

 

A.     Educational Institutions

One (1) per classroom or other service rooms, plus one (1) per 250 square feet of office gross floor area, plus one (1) per every five (5) students over minimum legal driving age.

 

Public library, museum

One (1) per each 500 square feet of gross floor area (GLA)

 

Community Center or other Places of Public Assembly

One-quarter (.25) per person permitted in maximum occupancy per fire marshal, plus one (1) per two (2) employees

 

Religious Institution

One-quarter (.25) per person permitted in maximum occupancy per fire marshal, plus one (1) per two (2) employees

 

Public park, playground and non spectator active recreation uses

None, except one (1) space per active recreation facility may be required by the Zoning Administrator

 

Commercial Entertainment [bowling, billiards, theaters, etc. in HCD]

One-quarter (.25) per person permitted in maximum occupancy per fire marshal, plus one (1) per two (2) employees at shift with peak employment

VII. Loading Spaces

 

Retail, personal service and office uses

One (1) space per five thousand (5,000) square feet of gross floor area.

 

All other, excluding residential, uses

One (1) space per 25,000 square feet of gross floor space

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§8.3.1       Requirements for Other Uses

A use, by virtue of its being delineated in Table 8.1, shall not be construed to mean that such use is allowed.  The Zoning Administrator shall determine the required parking and loading facilities for uses not specifically listed in the table, based upon comparison with requirements for the most similar use(s) listed and accepted planning and land use standards.

§8.3.2      Rules of Calculation

When the calculation of the number of required parking spaces results in a fractional number of spaces, the number of spaces shall be rounded to the next highest whole number.

§8.3.3      Commercial Vehicle Spaces

In addition to spaces required in Table 8.1, one (1) off street parking space shall be required for each commercial vehicle which is directly associated with a permitted or conditional use, and which is to be parked on the premises during normal business hours.  Required loading spaces may be credited as part of the total space needed for commercial vehicles.

Section 8.4                           Parking Space Locations

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(a)              Parking spaces may be provided in a garage or properly surfaced area meeting the dimensional requirements set forth in this Article.

(b)              All off-street parking facilities and loading spaces shall be provided on the same lot or parcel of land being served.

(c)               If required parking spaces cannot reasonably be provided on the same lot on which the principal use is conducted, such spaces may be provided on other off-street property provided that:

(1)               All such property used for parking lies within four hundred (400) feet of the main entrance to such principal use;

(2)              The association of such parking spaces with the principal use they are designated to serve shall be identified by signage; and

(3)              The zoning classification of such lots are the same or the zoning classification of the lot proposed for parking is less restrictive than that of the lot upon which the use is to be located.

Section 8.5.                          Potential Adjustments

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The Zoning Administrator may approve an adjusted number of spaces for any site if one or more of the following conditions apply.  In no case shall the adjustment exceed 25% of the total sum of spaces otherwise required.

(a)              A single site with more than one activity or principal use, whether located on the same or separate lots, may utilize a common area in order to comply with off-street parking requirements, provided that the total number of individual spaces available in such common area is no less than (80%) of the sum total of spaces for the individual uses as separately computed in accord with Table 8.1 and provided the owner of said parking area relinquishes his right to develop or use such area until such time parking spaces are provided elsewhere.

(b)              The number of parking spaces required for churches, theaters, or assembly halls, whose peak attendance hours are at night or on weekends, may be satisfied by those which are partially or wholly assigned to another use that will be closed during such peak hours, provide such parking is located within four hundred (400) feet of the main entrance to the proposed principal uses. 

(c)               Off-street parking requirements may be wholly or partially met by on-street parking spaces abutting the frontage of a structure or use or where a sufficient supply of existing under-utilized public parking spaces in off-street parking lots are accessible and where the applicant demonstrates that such availability will continue in the future.

(d)              Where a development is designed to accommodate cyclists, pedestrians and residents and is accessible to such using the site, the Zoning Administrator may approve an adjustment to develop no less than 75% of the total required number of spaces, provided:

(1)               Uses eligible shall be those offering local services directly to the community, such as personal goods and services consumed on-site or of such sizes and weights easily carried.

(2)              Parking areas and drive through services shall not be located in any required or provided front yards and not within ten (10) feet of such.

(3)              The primary entrance to the building of each use shall be accessible by a hardscaped walkway of at least five feet (5’) wide. The walkway shall run continuously across the width of the property, roughly parallel to the public right of way and shall either connect to the existing walkway of adjacent lots or stub out at lot lines so as to be extended in the same manner.

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Section 8.6                           Parking Space and Maneuvering Area Dimensions

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All parking spaces established after the adoption of this Ordinance shall be no less than the following dimensions:

Table 8.2

Type Space

Width

Length

Standard head-in parking

9 feet

18 feet

Parallel or on-street parking

8 feet

22 feet

Single-Unit Loading

12 feet

30 feet, increased to 55 feet where semi-trailers will be loading and unloading at the site.

Designated handicapped

Per requirements of ADA and building codes

Boat and Trailer [exclusive of space for towing vehicle]

12 feet

35 feet.

§8.6.1      Provision of Maneuvering Areas

All minimum space dimensions are exclusive of driving lanes, maneuvering areas and walkways, and in addition shall have a minimum 23-foot maneuvering area.

§8.6.2      Separation from Rights-of-ways

All parking areas shall be adequately separated from public rights of way so that such rights of way are not used for maneuvering of any kind.

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Section 8.7                           Accessibility to Parking Areas

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§8.7.1       Maximum Points of Access

No more than two (2) points of access shall be provided along the frontage of any parking area.

§8.7.2      Curb Cut Widths

Parking lot entrance and exit drive curb cuts shall be no less than 12 feet and no more than 26 feet in width, unless a greater width is required by SC DOT for development in the Highway Commercial District. Entrances or exits that include a median strip to separate traffic flow in opposite directions may be expanded to 60 feet in width.

§8.7.3      Distances Between Curb Cuts and Intersections

(a)              Curb cuts shall not be less than 25 feet apart provided, however, that this distance shall be increased wherever the lot frontage on a street permits such increase or should the lot front on US 17 in the Highway Commercial District.

(b)              Entrance and exit drives shall be located at least 25 feet from any street intersection.

(c)               Suitable provisions shall be made to prevent ingress or egress at locations other than designated entrance or exit drives.

Section 8.8.                          Design Standards

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§8.8.1      Barriers

(a)              Except where a greater setback is required in a particular zoning district, wherever outdoor parking space is established for six (6) or more vehicles and such space or the maneuvering space associated therewith abuts or lies within five (5) feet of the street, alley, or another property, a suitable barrier shall be provided in such manner that no vehicle using such space shall encroach upon or overhang such street, alley, or other property; such barrier may consist of posts, bumpers, or wheel stops.

(b)              All off street loading spaces shall be provided with adequate off street maneuvering areas.  Where a loading space is adjacent to a public sidewalk or other public pedestrian way, it shall be located, arranged and improved with curbs, walls or other barriers to adequately protect pedestrians.

§8.8.2      Screening

(a)              Wherever outdoor parking space for six or more vehicles is established and such space or the maneuvering space associated therewith abuts or lies within five (5) feet of a street or other public right of way, a planting strip not less than five (5) feet wide shall be provided between such space and such street or alley.

(b)              Wherever outdoor parking space for six (6) or more vehicles is established and such space or the maneuvering space associated therewith abuts a residential lot, a planting strip not less than ten (10) feet in width shall be provided between such space and the adjoining lot.

(c)               Planting strips shall be protected from encroachment by wheels or vehicles and shall be planted with suitable materials such as grass, ground cover, shrubs, or trees as required in §8.8.3 below and; such planting shall be maintained in good condition for so long as such space is used for off-street parking.

(d)              Off street loading areas shall be screened in accordance with Article VII.

§8.8.3      Landscaping

Wherever ten (10) or more parking spaces are provided in a single location, such parking areas shall be landscaped as follows:

(a)              Planting strips provided between the parking area and street or other public right of way shall include one (1) shade tree per linear foot, or part thereof, of such planting strip.  The distance between such trees shall not be greater than 25 feet on center.  Wherever possible, groupings of trees are encouraged.  No less than six (6) shrubs per forty (40) linear feet of a planting strip shall be provided.  All shrubs within the planting strip shall be at least two (2) feet in height at the time of installation.

(b)              Interior parking lot landscaping islands shall interrupt every ten (10) parking spaces.  Such landscaping islands shall be no less than ninety (90) square feet in area and shall be no less than six (6) feet in width.  All landscaping islands shall be planted with no less than one (1) shade tree and two (2) shrubs.  Remaining areas of a landscaping island shall be covered with vegetative materials such as grass or groundcovers. 

(c)               Landscaping materials planted within a landscaping island shall be protected from vehicular traffic.

§8.8.4      Surfacing

(a)              All parking areas for more than (10) parking spaces shall be surfaced with an all-weather material that will support expected parking and traffic loads such that no more than one (1) inch of standing stormwater may accumulate in pockets or cracks wider than one-quarter inch at the surface.

(b)              Surface materials may consist of decorative hardscapes, such as brick or tabby, or pervious materials, including pervious concrete, gravel, crushed oyster shells, a steel

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