Large Maturing Trees – Scientific Name

Common Name

Evergreen/ Deciduous

Comments

Bloom Time

Acer barbatum

Southern Sugar Maple

D

Bottomland forests, mesic slopes

Apr. - July

Acer negundo

Boxelder

D

Lowland or seasonally flooded sites

Mar. - Apr.

Acer rubrum

Red Maple

D

Red fall color; varied sites, best on moist; great shade

Feb. - Mar.

Betula nigra

River Birch

D

Lowland or moist sites

Mar. - Apr.

Carpinus caroliniana

Ironwood, Musclewood

D

Moist, rich areas; tolerates shading; smooth bark

Mar. - Apr.

Carya aquatica

Water Hickory

D

Wet, poorly drained sites, fastest growth on well-drained

Apr. - May

Carya cordiformis

Bitternut Hickory

D

Wet to drier sites, best on rich, well-drained soils

Apr.

Carya glabra

Pignut Hickory

D

Dry or moist sites; very common

Apr. - May

Carya myristicaeformis

Nutmeg Hickory

D

Rich bottomlands; very rare, locally in Chas/Berk Cos

Apr.

Carya ovalis

Sweet pignut Hickory

D

Dry, fertile forests

Apr. - May

Carya pallida

Pale or Sand Hickory

D

Dry or sandy sites; resembles Carya glabra

Apr. - May

Carya tomentosa

Mockernut Hickory

D

Very common; prefers dry, rich sites

Apr. - May

Celtis Laevigata

Hackberry, Sugarberry

D

Low, wet areas; bark has corky projections

Apr. - May

Fraxinus americana

White Ash

D

Deep, rich well-drained sites

Apr. - May

Fraxinus caroliniana

Carolina or Water Ash

D

Low sites; small tree, rarely exceeds 40 feet

May

Fraxinus pensylvanica

Green Ash

D

Widely distributed; moist sites; relatively fast growing

Apr.

Fraxinus tomentosa

Pumpkin Ash

D

Low, moist sites, in association with cypress and tupelo

Apr. - May

Ilex opaca

American Holly

E

Varied soil types; deep, rich best; attractive foliage/berries

 

Juglans nigra

Black Walnut

D

Rich, well-drained sites; struggles in pure coastal setting

Apr.

Juniperus silicicola

Southern Red Cedar

E

Low, wet areas; slow-growing; long-lived; screen tree

 

Juniperus virginiana

Red Cedar

E

Low to dry sites; dense foliage; great screen tree

 

Liquidambar styraciflua

Sweet Gum

D

Floodplain soils or moist upland sites; great autumn color

Apr. - Jun

Liriodendron tulipifera

Tulip Poplar

D

Deep, well-drained soils; fairly insect/disease resistant

Apr. - Jun

Magnolia grandiflora

Southern Magnolia

E

Rich, moist sites; large, attractive white flowers

May - Jul.

Magnolia virginiana

Sweetbay Magnolia

E

Wet, sandy acidic soils; white flowers; lemon fragrance

Apr. - Jul

Morus rubra

Red Mulberry

D

Rich, moist sites; rapid growth; large canopy; red fruit

Apr. - May

Nyssa aquatica

Tupelo, Swamp Tupelo

D

Wet to well-drained sites; fast grower; dark purple fruit

Apr. - May

Nyssa biflora

Swamp Gum

D

Wet to well-drained sites

Apr. - Jun

Nyssa sylvatica

Black Gum

D

Moist or dry areas; early, brilliant fall color; great shade

Apr. - Jun

Ostrya virginiana

Hop Hornbeam

D

Moist, fertile soils to sandy sites; occasional coastal plain

Apr. - May

Pinus echinata

Shortleaf Pine

E

Dry, fertile upland sites; relatively fast growing

Mar. - Apr.

Pinus elliottii

Slash Pine

E

Wet flatland sites, can be found on wet sandy soils

Mar. - Apr.

Pinus glabra

Spruce Pine

E

Rich, bottomland sites; not widely distributed within range

Mar. - Apr.

Pinus palustris

Longleaf Pine

E

Slow grower; sandy sites; tolerates drought well

Mar. - Apr.

Pinus serotina

Pond Pine

E

Wet flatwoods to sandy, peat-rich swamps

Apr.

Pinus taeda

Loblolly Pine

E

Very common; variety of sites, avoid very wet sites

Mar. - Apr.

Platanus occidentalis

Sycamore

D

Wet sites, tolerates poorly soils; fast growth

Apr. - May

Populus deltoides

Cottonwood

D

Stream sides, floodplains

Mar. - Apr.

Populus heterophylla

Swamp cottonwood

D

Swamp forests, floodplains

Mar. - Apr.

Prunus serotina

Black Cherry

D

Widely distributed; rapid growth; best on moist sites

Apr. - May

Quercus alba

White Oak

D

Variety of sites, best on well-drained areas; wildlife food

Apr.

Quercus austrina

Bluff Oak

D

Rich slopes, over calcareous sediments; rare

Apr.

Quercus coccinea

Scarlet Oak

D

Dry, upland sites; rapid grower, short-lived; rare coastal

Apr. - May

Quercus falcata

Southern Red Oak

D

Dry areas

Apr.

Quercus hemisphaerica

Upland Laurel Oak

E

Maritime forests, dry sandy soils

Mar. - Apr.

Quercus incana

Bluejack Oak

D

Sand ridges; small shrubby tree

Apr.

Quercus laevis

Turkey Oak

D

Sand ridges; very xeric soils

Apr.

Quercus laurifolia

Laurel Oak

E

Low or sandy areas, best  in well-drained

Mar. - Apr.

Quercus lyrata

Overcup Oak

D

Lowland or floodplain sites ; slow grower

Mar. - Apr.

Quercus margaretta

Sand post Oak

D

Sand ridges with loam or clay

Apr.

Quercus marilandica

Blackjack Oak

D

Clay-rich upland woods, droughty soils

Apr.

Quercus michauxii

Swamp Chestnut Oak

D

Bottomlands

Apr.

Quercus nigra

Water Oak

D

Ubiquitous, well-suited to coastal environment

Apr.

Quercus pagoda

Cherrybark Oak

D

Bottomlands

Apr.

Quercus phellos

Willow Oak

D

Low, well-drained sites; rapid growth; resembles a willow

Mar. - Apr.

Quercus shumardii

Shumard’s Oak

D

Bottomlands; moist, fertile soils ; scattered distribution

Apr.

Quercus similes

Bottomland Post Oak

D

Rich calcareous stream bottoms; rare

 

Quercus stellata

Post Oak

D

Dry uplands or clay soils, best on loamy soils

Apr.

Quercus velutina

Black Oak

D

Dry woods; xeric, sandy soils

Apr.

Quercus virginiana

Live Oak

E

Variety of sites; well-suited to coast

Apr.

Sabal palmetto

Cabbage Palmetto

E

Dry or wet areas

 

Taxodium ascendens

Pond Cypress

D

Cypress savannas, acid swamps

 

Taxodium distichum

Bald Cypress

D

Freshwater wet areas

Mar. - Apr.

Ulmus alata

Winged Elm

D

Rich woods

Feb. - Mar.

Ulmus americana

American Elm

D

Bottomlands

Mar. - Apr.


Ulmus rubra

Slippery Elm

D

Low areas; rare in coastal plain

Feb. - Mar.

Small Maturing Trees – Scientific Name

Common Name

Evergreen/ Deciduous

Comments

Bloom Time

Aesculus pavia

Red Buckeye

D

Red flowers; fresh wet areas

Apr. - May

Alnus serrulata

Tag Alder

D

Streambanks, marshes

Feb. - Mar.

Amelanchier arborea

Service berry

D

Rich woods, bluffs, bay heads

Feb. - Mar.

Amelanchier canadensis

Serviceberry

D

White flowers; red fruit

Mar. - Apr.

Cercis canadensis

Redbud

D

Lavender flowers; dry areas

Mar. - Apr.

Chionanthus virginicus

Fringe Tree

D

Off-white flowers

Jul. - Sep.

Cornus florida

Dogwood

D

White flowers; part shade; red fall color

Mar. - Apr.

Crataegus marshallii

Hawthorn

D

White flowers; red fruit; wet areas

Apr. - May

Crataegus uniflora

Hawthorn

D

White flowers; red fruit; dry areas

Apr. - May

Diospyros virginiana

Persimmon

D

Varied sites; conspicuous orange to purple fruit

May - Jun.

Gordonia lasianthus

Loblolly Bay

E

White flowers; wet areas

Jul. - Sep.

Halesia carolina

Carolina Silverbell

D

Rich woods, calcareous hammocks; rare

Mar. - Apr.

Hamamelis virginiana

Witch Hazel

D

Pale yellow flowers; dry areas

Oct. - Dec.

Ilex cassine

Cassena Holly

E

Red berries; moist areas

 

Malus angustifolia

Crabapple

D

Pink flowers; throughout

Apr. - May

Osmanthus americana

Wild Olive

E

Acid bays and swamps

Apr. - May

Persea borbonia

Red Bay

E

Used for cooking; moist areas

 

Planera aquatica

Water Elm

D

River floodplains

Mar. - Apr.

Prunus angustifolia

Chickasaw Plum

D

Sandy sites; fast grower; forms dense thickets

Mar. - Apr.

Prunus caroliniana

Cherry Laurel

E

Well-drained, rich sites; white flowers; rapid growth

Mar. - Apr.

Salix caroliniana

Carolina Willow

D

Riverbanks, sandbars, wet places

Mar. - Apr.

Salix nigra

Black Willow

D

Low, wet areas; fast growth

Mar. - Apr.

Sassafras albidum

Sassafras

D

Red fall color; throughout

 

Sorbus arbutifolia

Red Chokeberry

D

White flowers; red fruit; moist areas

Mar. - May

Styrax americana

Storax

D

Swamp forests, calcareous hammocks

Mar. - Apr.

Symplocos tinctoria

Horse Sugar

Semi-E

Cream flowers; sandy areas

Mar. - May

Xanthoxylum americanum

Toothache Tree

D

Rich woods, over calcareous rocks; rare

Mar. - Apr.


Xanthoxylum clavaherculis

Hercules Club

D

Thorns; sandy areas

 


Shrubs – Scientific Name

Common Name

Evergreen/ Deciduous

Comments

Bloom Time

Amorpha fruticosa

False Indigo

D

Streamsides, tidal marshes; purple flower

Apr. - Jul.

Baccharis halmifolia

Salt Myrtle

E

Downy plumes; throughout

Sep. - Oct.

Batis maritima

Saltwort

E

Brackish marshes

Jun. - Jul.

Bumelia sp.

Buckhorn

D

White flowers; dry areas

Jun. - Jul.

Callicarpa americana

Beautyberry

D

Bright purple berries; pink flowers

Jun. - Jul.

Calycanthus floridus

Sweetshrub

D

Low, rich woods; aromatic; maroon; rare

Apr. - May

Cephalanthus occidentalis

Button Bush

D

White flowers; wet areas

Jun. - Aug.

Clethra alnifolia

Sweet Pepperbush

D

White flowers, fragrant; fresh wet areas

Sep. - Oct.

Cyrilla racemiflora

Titi

Semi-E

White flowers; moist areas

May - Jul.

Forestiera acuminata

Swamp Privet

D

Swamp forests, calcareous sediments; rare

Mar.

Forestiera godfreyi

Godfrey’s Privet

D

Sea islands, shell middens; rare

Feb.

Fothergilla gardenii

Witch Alder

D

Pocosins, wet savannas; rare

Sep. - Oct.

Gaylussacia dumosa

Dwarf Huckleberry

D

Xeric to mesic acidic woodlands

Mar. - Jun.

Gaylussacia frondosa

Dangleberry

D

Mesic, acidic woodlands, pocosins

Mar. - May

Hypericum hypericoides

St. Andrew’s Cross

Semi-E

Yellow flowers; dry areas

May - Aug.

Hypericum stans

St. Peter’s Wort

Semi-E

Yellow flowers; dry areas

Jun. - Oct.

Ilex cassine

Dahoon Holly

E

Red berries; fresh wet areas

 

Ilex glabra

Inkberry

E

Black berries; moist areas

 

Ilex verticillata

Winterberry

D

Red berries; moist areas

 

Ilex vomitoria

Yaupon Holly

E

Red berries; throughout

 

Itea virginica

Virginia Sweetspire

D

White flowers; red fall color; moist areas

May - J un.

Leucothoe axillaris

Leucothoe

E

White flowers; moist areas

Mar. - May

Litsea aestivalis

Pondspice

D

Depression ponds, Carolina bays; rare

Mar. - Apr.

Lyonia ligustrina

Southern Maleberry

D

Pocosins, seepage bogs, other wet habitats

Apr. - Jun.

Lyonia lucida

Fetterbush

E

Pink flowers; moist areas

Apr. - Jun.

Lyonia mariana

Staggerbush

D

Pine flatwoods, savannas, pocosin-sandhill

Apr. - May

Myrica cerifera

Wax Myrtle

E

Blue fruit; fragrant; throughout

 

Osmanthus americana

Wild Olive

E

Cream flowers; dry areas

Apr. - May

Quercus minima

Dwarf Live Oak

E

Flatwoods, coastal fringe sandhills

Apr.

Quercus pumila

Running Oak

D

Flatwoods, especially in loamy soil

Mar. - Apr.

Rhododendron atlanticum

Dwarf Azalea

D

Pink flowers; moist-dry areas

Apr. - May

Rhododendron canescens

Wild Azalea

D

Pink flowers; fresh wet-dry areas

Mar. - May

Rhus copallina

Winged Sumac

D

Red fall color; dry areas

 

Rosa carolina

Wild Rose

D

Pink flowers; dry areas

May - Jun.

Rosa palustris

Swamp Rose

D

Pink flowers; moist areas

May - Jul.

Sabal minor

Shrub Palmetto

E

Moist areas

 

Sambucus canadensis

Elderberry

D

White flowers; throughout

Apr. - Jul.

Serenoa repens

Saw Palmetto

E

Low areas

 

Vaccinium arboreum

Sparkleberry

E

Black berries; white flowers; dry areas

Apr. - Jun.

Vaccinium corymbosum

Highbush Blueberry

D

Blue berries; white flowers; moist areas

Feb. - May

Vaccinium crassifolium

Creeping Blueberry

E

Pine flatwoods, savannas, pocosin-sandhill

Apr. - May

Vaccinium elliottii

Mayberry

D

Bottomlands, slopes, sandy river terraces

Mar. - Apr.

Viburnum nudum

Possum Haw

D

Bogs, swamps, pocosins

Mar. - Apr.

Viburnum rufidulum

Blue Haw

D

White flowers; dry areas

Mar. - Apr.

Yucca aloifolia

Spanish Bayonet

E

White flowers; dry sandy areas

Jun. - Jul.

Yucca filamentosa

Bear Grass

E

White flowers; dry areas

Apr. - Jul.

 


Notes:

The intent of this appendix is to present indigenous species available and some of their basic characteristics as well as potential siting restraints.  The range and diversity of tree species available should satisfy landscaping needs in McClellanville while preserving and promoting the natural environment within town. 

Longleaf pine is strongly preferred over other pine species in landscape plans since it serves as the natural habitat to a federally endangered species, the red-cockaded woodpecker, and is the predominant tree of old-growth upland pine forests remaining in Charleston County.  Therefore, in tree loss mitigation, a removed longleaf pine shall be replaced by the same.

In the event that a species is listed twice in this appendix, it shall be subject to the stricter protections prescribed.  Such species may serve alternatively – but not as both at once – in planting requirements.

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